Our Patrilineal Heritage

Our branch of the patrilineal human family tree migrated out of Africa probably 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, following expanding grasslands and plentiful game to the Middle East.* Our ancestors stayed in the Middle East longer than some, most likely moving northwest into the Balkans about 25,000 or 30,000 years ago, probably bearing the mutation M429 (equivalently, S22) that defines our haplogroup IJ.** In Europe our ancestors were part of the Gravettian culture, hunters who used chipped stone tools and weapons and were the first to make clay figurines (including many "Venus" figurines). Somewhere around 22,000 to 24,000 years ago the mutation M170 (equivalently, P19) took place in one man in this group; this mutation defines our more specific haplogroup I. This was perhaps slightly before the onset of the last glacial maximum (LGM), and this man (our distant ancestor) was presumably living in one of the isolated ice-free refuge areas that people were forced to occupy then, probably in the Balkans (where haplogroup I is common today) or perhaps in the middle Danube basin or near the Alps. As the glaciers retreated, some 12,000 to 15,000 years ago, our part of this group began moving north and somewhat west, perhaps initially going up the Danube. When they were in or near what is now northern Germany and Denmark, the mutation M253 (equivalently, P40) that defines our subgroup or subclade, I1, took place.*** The bearers of this new mutation expanded north to Scandinavia and probably west to Doggerland, the area (now submerged beneath the North Sea) connecting England with continental Europe. Some 7,000 or 8,000 years ago agriculture, spreading out from the Middle East, reached our ancestors in northwest Europe.**** From our microsatellite data (shown below) we appear to be part of a transitional or mixed population. A Norse (rather than Anglo-Saxon, Frisian or Danish) background would be suggested by our DYS390 = 23 (rather than 22), but our DYS385a,b = 13,14 is typical of Anglo-Saxons, as is our DYS462 = 12.*****  The Y-chromosome data collected in the British Isles by Capelli et al.****** appear to show significant Anglo-Saxon or Danish replacement of the previous indigenous Celtic population in East Anglia, and an Anglo-Saxon (or Danish) paternal origin for the early Stones of Essex seems likely, though a Norman origin is possible.

A Walter atte Stone is listed in the 1320 and 1327 subsidy (tax) rolls of Little Bentley, Essex, England. Walter may have been the first of his line to bear the surname "atte Stone" (at the Stone), but it is more likely that his father or grandfather acquired the surname because he lived near a prominent stone. Since there are no natural stone formations of any significant size in this area, the eponymous stone was probably a road or boundary marker. Walter is perhaps the great-grandfather of the William atte Stone who appears at the top of the chart to the right.

* Much of this background information comes from the Genographic Project's Atlas of the Human Journey, an excellent presentation, though it does not seem (in Jan. 2010) to have been updated with the very latest advances in research.
** My personal DNA helped revise the human Y-chromosome phylogenetic tree. Specifically, the presence of mutation S22 in my (haplogroup I) DNA and in the DNA of a member of haplogroup J (and in no members of haplogroups other than I and J) showed that there was an early haplogroup, IJ, from which I and J developed.
*** See "New Phylogenetic Relationships for Y-chromosome Haplogroup I" by Peter A. Underhill, et al. (2007), discussed, along with other sources, in the Wikipedia article on Haplogroup I1.
**** See Guns, Germs, and Steel by Jared Diamond for fascinating details about the origin, spread and consequences of plant and animal domestication.
***** Analysis by Ken Nordtvedt, who calls our variety I1-T2; see
****** "A Y Chromosome Census of the British Isles," Cristian Capelli, et al., Current Biology 13 (2003): 979-984.

Church of St. George the Martyr, Great Bromley, Essex. Our immigrant ancestor, Gregory Stone, the youngest of 11 children, was baptized here in 1592, as shown in the parish register.

Doorway of William Jerome house, Bristol, Connecticut. (This house was built in 1742 by Caleb Palmer and later sold to William Jerome.) No doubt William's sister Abigail (Jerome) Stone and probable niece or daughter Temperance (Jerome) Stone spent much time here.

Our Y-haplogroup: I1a4 (S22+, P19+, P40+, Z63+).
Our haplotype:

Prepared by LineageCharts.com

19 February 2012 version of chart